Burden of Disease: Impact of a health outcome or disease on a population.
Case Definition: Set of criteria for determining if a person has a particular disease or other health condition.
Chain of Infection: Links of infection from person to person.
Chart Abstraction: Recording information from patients’ medical records, including demographic data (age, race/ethnicity, sex), as well as symptoms, treatments, and health outcomes.
Community Transmission: Spread of disease from person to person in a community
Contact: Someone was physically close to a person who was potentially infectious with a pathogen.
Contact Tracing: A strategy for slowing the spread of disease in which public health workers communicate with infectious people to identify their contacts. They then follow up with those contacts to provide guidance on how to quarantine themselves and what to do if they develop symptoms of disease.
Data Visualization: Display of information in pictures, charts, and graphics to make the data easier to understand and use.
Epidemiologic (Epi) Curve: Graphic representation of what has happened with a disease such as changes in the number of cases, hospitalizations, or deaths over time.
Epidemiological (Epi) Link: Characteristic that links two cases, such as close contact between two people or a common exposure.
Epidemiological Model: Mathematical representation that predicts where, how long, and how far a disease will spread.
Exposure: Contact with a something that causes illness. In the case of an infectious disease, this represents interaction with a human, animal, or environment from which the pathogen can be transmitted.
Incidence: Number of people in a population who develop a disease or other health outcome over a period of time.
Infectious Disease: Something that causes an infection that can lead to a disease.
Line List: Table containing a list of people with a specific disease or exposures.
Nationally Notifiable Disease: Disease that healthcare providers must report to state or local health departments.
National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS): Multifaceted program used by around 3,000 public health departments that includes a surveillance system that monitors over 100 diseases.
Public Health Surveillance: Systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health data.
Prevalence: Number of people in a population who have a disease or other health outcome at one point in time.
Self-quarantine: Staying away from others while monitoring oneself for signs of illness.